Since the mid-2000s, China's outbound investment has increased significantly. In 2016, China became the world's second largest source of overseas direct investment (ODI). With the launch of the "Belt and Road" and the upgrading of the political significance of Chinese overseas investment to the Chinese party-state, a number of key issues have emerged. This report explores how overseas investment is strategically important to China, but at the same time creates economic, labor, and environmental issues for countries in the Belt and Road region, including Africa, Asia, and Germany. Through this report, we hope to generate discussion in civil society about the BRI and COI, and to develop tools for environmental protection, the defense of the rights of those negatively impacted, and the search for viable alternatives.